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In August, after finishing my smack cross section, I started a new project. The first series of pictures are sorted now, it is time to start with the log of this new scratch project. Introduction Since ages, the ship model was the ideal tool to show how a vessel fits together. Ship builders used models to present their new designs to the admiralties. (painting 'A New Ship for the Dutch' John Seymour Lucas) In the 19th and early 20th century they were very suitable for museums to show to the general public how live on board of a ship was. (Picture of the old Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, borrowed from the website of the Rijksmuseum). And not least, the ship model was used as a didactic tool in maritime education. (Source of picture: fishermen's orphans during nautical education, 'IBIS' Orphan school in Ostend during the 50ties. Screenshot from archive movie 'Koninklijk Werk IBIS') I had my first naval training in the mid-seventies. In that time the era in which the ship model was a current didactic tool was already past. The ship model was replaced by slides on overhead projectors and video. Nowadays maritime education centers use Power point, smart boards, digital simulators, and all kind of virtual tools. But I still remember that the Mine Warfare School in Ostend had a series of beautiful dioramas to demonstrate all the different types of mine sweeping gear, in the seamanship classroom in the Naval Education Center they had all kinds of models of the rigging for replenishment at sea. We learned the maritime buoyage system with models of the buoys. During sailing classes we learned the different parts of the sail boat with the help of a 1/5 scale model of the Caravelle sailing boat. All those fine didactic models are vanished. I suppose that a lot turned into dust in cellars and attics. Some disappeared probably to private collections and hopefully some are preserved in museums although I didn't see back a lot of them. Up to now I have built some didactic models, two cross sections and a full framed fishing sloop with one side left open. From nostalgic motive I want to build a pure educational model. It will be a old fashioned school model, intended to learn a landlubber (or a new naval recruit) the different parts of a boat. The image below shows more or less what I have in mind: making a model of a stripped boat and naming all the parts of it. (drawing from 'Le Chasse Marée') I find a suitable design for my project in the book 'Apprendre le modelisme naval' (a publication of Le Chasse Marée). In the chapter 'Le modèle de chartente' (the model on frames) the boat carpenter Gerd Löhmann explains how to make a model on frames. The chapter is a description of the build of the mackerel cutter 'Marie', a small sailing fishing sloop of the type which was used along the Breton coast (France) before World war II. Gerd Löhmann built his cutter just like I would like to be my didactic model (Picture from the book 'Apprendre le modelisme naval'). The book contains also the detailed plans of the vessel on scale 1/10. The real vessel was built in 1928 and was 6.86 m long, so the model will be ±69 cm long. I will build it in cherry (Picture from the book 'Apprendre le modelisme naval'). Some time ago I got a few stumps from the trunk of a cherry tree that an acquaintance cut down in his garden. I have split the stumps into sawable pieces an stowed them away on a dry space. That is the wood I will use for my instruction model: Some pieces sawn into planks, ready to be planed to the necessary thicknesses. To finish this post, a word about the layout of this building log. I would like to make this project not simply an instruction model, but also a lexicon and encyclopedia about wooden shipbuilding terms. So, I will work in three phases: first the boat model, then the lexicon and finally the encyclopedia. My log will follow this sequence and will be build up in three chapters: I. The Boat II. The Lexicon III. The Encyclopedia Now I am ready to start. The keel will be laid in my next post. I hope I will be able to captivate you with this new project.
After many (and many more) hours of effort by numerous volunteers, it is now ready and available for viewing. Joshua Humphreys is acknowledged as the principal designer of the original six American frigates. His son, Samuel, was Chief Naval constructor from 1826 until his death in 1846. The Notebook represents essentially an Aide-mémoire or ready reference on a wide variety of information related to ships and shipbuilding. It opens with the hand copied British Establishment of 1719, and also includes the 1745 establishment, dimensions of many vessels from several nations, and notations on ships wheels, various capstans and much more. It runs chronologically from the first entry (not dated) - some entries provide clues as to the date (such as a notation "captured by the British in 1813) but that also is sporadic. For example, there is an entry for "Dimensions of spars of US Frigate President" followed by "Dimensions of Spars of US Frigate Constitution", however they follow entries for the "Dimension of Brig US Nautilus captured by The British in 1812" and "Rules for masting Frigates 1809", and are followed by "Dimensions of Ship Madison Corvette, Built-Launched at Sacketts Harbour on the Lakes November 1812" and an entry titled "Sept 1814 A Better Rule". Overall, there is a great deal of information of various detail provided which can aid in understanding the basis for some of the ship design philosophies of Joshua and Samuel. Please note that spellings have been retained as they appear in the source document for the most part, so there may be multiple spellings of the same word. Emendation has generally been restricted to converting the thorn (looks like a y as in ye ) to the appropriate word (such as "the" for ye ), and spelling out certain abbreviations. It can be downloaded from the Modelshipbuilder website at the bottom of the resources page here: http://modelshipbuilder.com/page.php?24 We hope that this is a useful reference work for you, and have plans to add to the body of knowledge as we continue transcription of other documents related to the early Navy.
Extracts from A Commissioner's Note Book, Annis 1691-1694 Laughton, J.K., W.G. (William G.) Perrin, C. Lloyd, and N.A.M. Rodger. 1912. The Naval Miscellany Vol. II. Publications of the Navy Records Society. [London] : Printed for the Navy Records Society. http://archive.org/details/navalmiscellany02laug. From the introduction offered in the volume: Several years ago the late Sir Leopold McClintock was so good as to lend me, for the use of the Society, a couple of small MS. books which he had picked up in a second-hand book-shop. They had no pedigree, but their origin is clear enough. They are rather thin octavos, bound in smooth red morocco, richly gilt on sides and backs, and with gilt edges, in the style commonly adopted by the Admiralty throughout the eighteenth century, and which, in itself, would suggest that they belonged to some official connected with the Admiralty were it not that the contents show beyond any practical doubt, that they must have belonged to a commissioner of the navy, in the early nineties of the seventeenth century ; very probably to the comptroller, who at that date was Sir Richard Haddock. The second part is my focus in this post - it “gives, from the most approved source, the explanation of a few terms which are of frequent occurrence in the lists of ships and comments on their efficiency all through the eighteenth century, but especially in the early part of it” So, if interested, here is the Explanation of Dockyard Terms (starts on page 146 of the reference). An Explanation of the Terms of Distinction commonly used in the Navy, of Ordinary Repairs, Extra Repairs, and Rebuilding. Abstract [Ordinary Repair is the annual caulking, tarring, rozining and paying sides and decks, masts also and yards ; palpable defects are made good. Extra Repair is more thorough ; decayed planks, &c., are renewed ; all artificers' work is seen to, and the whole carefully overhauled. Rebuilding consists of virtually pulling the ship to pieces and building into a new ship as much of the old wood as is serviceable. This is dated 16th November 1691, and described as signed by the Commissioners of the Navy. To it ' a larger explication and some other particulars from Mr. Dummer of Chatham ' is added, which here follows.] Defects in Ships, how discovered. Without separating the several parts that compose the whole one from another, defects are found either by searching all seams, rents, and treenails with a caulking iron, or by boring into the frame with an auger ; by observing the ship's chambering or reathing(1) ; the pitched seams to crack or spew out its oakum, or by the looseness of rust-eaten bolts. And as the matter is discernible by any of these means, together with a knowledge how long a ship hath been built, so the estimate of charge for repair is made ; and all beyond this visibility is conjecture, and no better to be discerned than is the condition of the vessels within a consumptive man before dissection. 1 Cambering or wreathing : curving or twisting. An Ordinary Repair is understood to be the annual trimming of the ship in harbor(2) by caulking all those parts which lie to the weather, and laying on of pitch or other mixed stuff of rozin, tallow &c., upon the same ; and once in three years at furthest, to dock them and burn off the old matter under water ; to search the seams and caulk them as occasion is and to grave them anew, which is to say to pay them all over under water with pitch or other mixed matter, with rozin &c. And in this ordinary trimming and repair we allow only of putting of small pieces, or of plank where the seams are grown too wide, or where knots or rents or a particular plank too much perished to hold oakum for tightness against the weather or other leakage. 2 i.e. of a ship in ordinary. An Extra Repair is taken to be such a defect in a ship's outward matter to the weather, that their frames cannot be preserved nor the ship fit for any service at sea by an ordinary trimming, without stripping such decayed materials of the outside planking and wales ; also the in-board works about the bulkheads and sides of the ship that lie to the weather ; therewith putting in short chocks and pieces in such part of the timbering of the frame as in this opening and stripping do appear decayed, and to repair the same all anew ; and many times to drive out all decayed iron bolts in the frame above and under water, placing upon the decks and sides an addition of standards, or riders, or both, that never was there before, for better strengthening the frame of a ship under such repair ; and sometimes the ship is sheathed under water, as the occasion calls for it ; and these works always requiring a dock, are finished with a good caulking all over and aying the ship with mixed stuff, pitch &c. for to keep the weather from preying on the materials of the body. Rebuilding is taken to be when neither the ordinary nor extra repair before mentioned will overcome, and so is an entire stripping down of all the out and in-board works, and removing so much of the timber of the frame, beams, standards, knees, &c., as shall be found decayed and rotten, which is many times done to the leaving only one-fourth part of what is in the old frame in the rebuilt ship ; and sometimes it is only taken to be the unmoulding of the frame and the stripping of the out and in-board work, from the top of the sides to 4 or 5 strakes under the lower wales, and to take out the tires of top timbers and upon futtocks, shifting or scarfing (3) the decayed beams and knees, and making the same good again by new material, completing all in-board works and to caulk all over and to grave. 3 When the ends of two pieces of timber are cut square and put together, they are said to ' butt ' to one another ; and when another piece is laid upon and fastened to both, this is called ' scarfing the timbers.' — Falconer's Diet, of the Marine. But here the term seems rather to mean cuttmg away the decayed part and restoring the thickness of the beam by a new piece laid on. Girdling . . . cannot so properly be called a repair in the matter as a supply of dimensions in breadth to the form of a ship that wants it ; and as occasion requires is from 4 to 8 and 10 inches thick on each side of the ship, in the parts that lie about the water edge in the midships; and this repair in the form of ships is done to obtain more breadth for their support under a wind, when they are found tender by leaning or lying down their sides too much to their sails.
New „Age of Sails” During recent years was constructed many sail ships both for commercial and pleasure purposes .In this number are also training ships for marine and navy school around the world as also research vessels. The biggest group of newly constructed sail ships are sail cruisers. Many modern sailing ships were designed by Polish naval architect Zygmunt Choreń and his team Choreń Design & Consulting. List of ships 1980 – STS Pogoria 1982 – Dar Młodzieży 1982 – ORP Iskra II 1984 – STV Kaliakra 1985 – RV Oceania 1987 – Druzhba 1987 – STS Mir 1988 – Alexander von Humboldt 1989 – Khersones 1989 – Pallada 1991 – Nadezhda 1991 – STS Fryderyk Chopin 1991 – STS Kaisei 1995 – Estelle 2000 – SV Royal Clipper 2002 – Mephisto 2010 – Running On Waves 2015 – Le Quy Don 2015 – El-Mellah (launched 7.11.2015) Tadeusz Royal Clipper She is listed in Guinness World Records as the largest square-rigged ship in service Pogoria Dar Młodzieży and Fryderyk Chopin Dar Młodzieży Druzhba Mir Alexander von Humboldt Estelle Kaisei Kliakra Nadiezda RV Oceania ORP Iskra II Pallada Running on Waves Le Quy Don El-Mellah in launching day El-Mellah