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Young America by EdT - FINISHED - extreme clipper 1853

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Great news Ed....thanks.

 

Bruce..I too am building the Donald McKay for a large open ocean diorama......I'm, currently building the Glory of the Seas..both for similar reasons as what you described...but namely because Glory was McKay's last Clipper and she died here in Seattle and the McKay was one of 4 passenger builds for James Baines Black ball line...which, like the Lighting had unique open air gangways for crew access.

 

I would be most interested in your build of the Mckay.  I have followed your Lightning build and enjoy your web page on the subject...great work and attention to detail.

 

Rob

Edited by rwiederrich

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Young America - extreme clipper 1853
Part 17 – Framing Continued

 

 

American Clipper Note:  Webb’s 1851 clipper, Challenge, was one of the most extreme of designs, with a dead rise of 20 degrees at midship, plus the usual narrow entry and run.  Her owners wanted no expense spared to make her the fastest and finest of merchant ships.  The legendary Robert Waterman was to be her captain and came on early to supervise construction.  Typical of most sea captains given the opportunity, he fitted her with too large a rig of spars and sails that, if anything, detracted from her performance until later replaced.  Expectations ran high for her first run to California, with $10,000 offered to Waterman to do it under 90 days.  It was a disappointing passage.  Waterman, a hard case in a profession of hard cases, had crew problems almost immediately.  Off Rio, the mate was stabbed and mutinous members of the crew flogged.  Later three men were blown off the mizzen topsail yard and a further four died of dysentery.  Upon reaching San Francisco in 108 days, the crew and press provoked sensational riots against Waterman.  He was later cleared of wrongdoing but Challenge went to a new commander.  Her troubles continued.

 

 

Framing is moving ahead at a faster clip than I anticipated.  I have moved up the learning curve and learned the little secrets that make the new pin-indexed assembly process work.  You will recall that the bolt/pin holes are indexed to identical positions on both frames in the CAD lofting process.  After cutting and trimming the parts, only about 30 minutes are required to complete the assembly of a frame pair.  This does not include beveling, milling the sidings or bolting – and I am not pushing the pace.

 

The next few pictures illustrate some frame assembly steps.  The first shows how the pins are used to place the frame timbers – pattern side down - on the assembly pattern.  Pin holes were drilled using the pattern marks on the underside of these pieces.

 

post-570-0-48172400-1383571895.jpg

 

Accurate timber end trimming and vertical drill centering are key.  Although the outer frame profiles are sanded back to the pattern line, only the pins are used for alignment. 

 

The next picture shows a lower futtock being glued into place – again relying entirely on the pinhole locations.

 

 

post-570-0-03237800-1383571896_thumb.jpg

 

After slipping the pins through the timber they are pushed into the holes in the lower pieces before gluing.  Dark glue is then applied as shown and the upper part pushed down and “nailed” into place with the pins and wood block buffers.

 

The next picture shows the amount of offset in the fore and aft timbers of the beveled pairs.  This offset increases going forward.

 

post-570-0-49190100-1383571896.jpg

 

 I am not cleaning off excess glue because I do not want to damage the patterns with water.  There are patterns on both sides of the frame pair and they are needed for beveling.  The inboard side will be beveled back to the red line on top of the pair.  The glue will come off when beveling.

 

I described the beveling, siding and bolting process earlier.  The next few pictures show progress in erecting the frames.

 

post-570-0-94154900-1383571896_thumb.jpg

 

In this picture the first 14 pairs have been installed.  This picture shows a characteristic feature of clipper hull shape.  The deadrise of the timbers is increasing going forward, narrowing the lower part of the hull.  The top timbers, however remain at almost full breadth to provide adequate floor space on the forecastle for crew activity.

 

 

post-570-0-48135400-1383571897_thumb.jpg

 

Eventually the forward shape will flare out at the top over the very sharp entry below.  This is a very different hull shape from Naiad.

 

All these pictures show temporary pine spacing chocks being glued between the frames above the lower futtocks.  This provides strength and helps maintain alignment.  Later when all frames are in place, these will be replaced with temporary ribbands – probably at the height of the planksheer.  These will bring the toptimbers and rail stanchions into a final fair line and hold them in place until permanent rails are installed.

 

 

post-570-0-34228800-1383571898_thumb.jpg

 

The last picture shows the 15th frame (O) being positioned for drilling of the pin/bolt hole into the keel.

 

post-570-0-94039700-1383571898_thumb.jpg

 

Time to start cutting out more frame timbers.

 

 

Ed

Edited by EdT

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It's nice to see the subtly changing hull form beginning to appear, Ed.

Edited by druxey

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Beautyful Ed.

 

Can you show us the secret recipy for the dark glue? I mean 3:1, 4:2, 5:1.5 ?? of PVA and black dye...

 

With the Triton I am only using white glue (PVA) and it is looking awfull when I sand the frames. An another one, Do you think that by adding this black dye, you "weak" the sustance, the glue or it´s something unreliable. (?) Maybe are silly questions.

 

 

Regards.

 

 

Daniel.

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Thanks, again, everyone.  I am really looking forward to seeing the full hull in frame.  The bare frames really let you visualize the shape.

 

Daniel, there is no secret to the messy process of making the dark glue - if  you have Naiad Volume I (subtle hint).  The process is simple.  I use dark brown artists' pigment.  Mix it well with maybe a tablespoon of  water - less than a teaspoon of pigment will do - to obtain a dark liquid - no powder or lumps visible.  Add this to a six ounce bottle of PVA (I used Titebond II) and mix it in thoroughly in a bowl - a mortar and pestle type of mixing - until it reaches a smooth syrupy state - about the color of chocolate milk or darker.  Wash out the remaing white glue in the bottle and refill it with the dark glue.  One 6-ounce bottle saw me completely through the Naiad project.  My glue is very dark and could be lighter with the same effect when dry.  I have had no problem with adhesion.  I am about to make a new batch so I will include some photos.  Good timing on the question.

 

Ed

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Ed I have never ever thought about building a clipper.   I was OK watching your  first posts and was enjoying just looking at the great work. But now that the framing is coming along you have gone and messed up my schedule big time as I try to figure if I could juggle my projects to fit  in such a project over the next few years. 

 

Great work Ed, on all counts.

 

Allan

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Awesome Ed! I'm watching intently to see how long the framing takes. How many hours can you put in at a sitting? I seem to burn out pretty quickly now. I can't wait to see her hull all done, it's such a pretty shape. I like the taper toward the stern looking down on her. The stern is so nice and light looking. Webb's clippers usually had the iron grid bracing inside,  will you show this? McKay started doing this after Lightning, I think this was a very big factor in longevity. The Donald Mckay was his longest [260 ft.] after the Great Republic, and she lasted over 20 years too. About 4 clipper lifetimes! These ships were really hammered.

 

Don't you wish the big McKay/Webb challenge had happened! Young America vs. the 22 knot capable Sovereign of the Seas. I think it would have depended on average wind strength. We'll never know, a shame. The "Great Ocean Regatta" between Lightning and Red Jacket would have been something to experience too!

 

Bruce

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Bruce...when do you plan on beginning the McKay?  I too am planning her build.  And yes..the Webb/McKay challenge would have been something to see for sure.

 

Rob

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Again, thank you all for the supportive comments.

 

Allan, sounds like a good project.  The full framing would give you a chance to exercise those TurboCad skills as well.  Anyway, I am glad to hear of your interest.  I have been hoping the YA build would attract some from the fully-framed set. The framing is different from the 18C RN.  It is alot simpler - no chocks, standalone frames, jogged or curved toptimbers and no ports to contend with.  At the same time there is more of it.  There are also more judgements to make on design specifics.  Although quite a lot is known and documented on the general construction, specific ship structural details have been lost.  Good luck.  Let me know if a novice can help.

 

Bruce, the framing is going faster than I expected.  I spend on average 2-4 hours each day in the workshop, often in more than one session.  I also spend time outside the shop - on research, drawings, photos and this blog.   When I start to tire, I quit and do something else.

 

The Sovereign / YA race would have been interesting.  In reading the endless accounts and passage times for these various ships and routes, it appears to me that the abilities of the captains and the vagaries of the weather - especially time of year conditions - had as much to do with performance as the differences in the ships in this class - probably more.  Variation in sailing times over the same routes are considerable for the same ship on different occasions.  My impression is that Babcock, YA's original skipper, may not have been the man to beat Sovereign.  On that first 110 day voyage to SF, it seems he made some judgements that extended the time, but I have not dug into that. 

 

Your comment on the iron strap bracing caught my attention, particularly your positive statement that it was on the inside.  I am inclined to agree, but in scouring every source I can find, have not found a definitive reference.  On Crothers Challenge drawing, dated 1975, it is clearly shown and noted as on the outside - the so called Lloyds system.  By the time of his book (1997) he seems to have backtracked and is not sure.  Most of the ships he lists have the bracing on the inside - the Admiralty system.  But none of those are Webb's.  He discusses all this.  I believe by the 1860's the American Lloyds registry specified outside, but in the 1857 registry inside bracing is specified.  Structurally, outside bracing is better, but more troublesome to install.  I do plan to install this and am leaning - currently - to inside.  However, my question is, do you have a reference for this?

 

It is unfortunate that Great Republic, as designed never got a chance to show her performance.   After the fire - before her first voyage - she was cut down and given a smaller rig - but was still a good performer.  Young America also had a very long - and essentially trouble-free - career of 32 years with the 50 punishing Cape Horn passages before she was mysteriously lost on her way to Trieste from Phialdelphia in 1885.

 

Thanks, again, for your interest and comments.

 

Daniel. I made some new dark glue and will show some pictures in the next part.

 

Ed

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I love the history lesson that accompanies your build Ed.

 

I've decided to finish my Ferreira build..before I finish the Glory of the Seas......but I will still begin the hull mods and sea build for the Donald McKay.  Lots to do and see.

 

Rob

Edited by rwiederrich

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Ed -

 

All I can add to this is "Wow"!  Your attention to the details, and ability to achieve what you are attempting, are amazing.  I think the background and research you have put into this build can only serve to make it better!

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Young America - extreme clipper 1853
Part 18 – Framing Continued

 

 

American Clipper Note:  Flying Cloud was launched from Donald McKay’s yard at East Boston a month before Challenge.  She was of comparable size, and like Challenge, bound for California from New York on her maiden voyage.  Inevitably she was drawn into the great “challenge” surrounding the ship Challenge.  She left New York in early June 1851 under command of Josiah Cressy. Three days later she lost her main and mizzen topgallant masts, but reached the line (equator) in 21 days.  She arrived in San Francisco in 89 days 21 hours, beating the previous record of 97 days, set by Sea Witch the year before – and 18 days under the Challenge’s ill-fated maiden voyage performance.

 

After the last post, there was a question about the dark glue that I use to highlight structural joint lines.  The 8 oz. bottle I mixed up for Naiad was just about empty, so when replacing it I took some pictures to help answer the question.

 

The first picture shows the starting point, plus two bottles of ready made dark Titebond glue.  The new bottle to the right is the currently available dark Titebond II.  I find it a bit light for pear.  The old – quite old actually – bottle in the center is the old Titebond dark glue – just about the right shade but no longer available.  T the left is an 8 oz. bottle of the standard yellow.  (The first thing I do with a new bottle of Titebond is pull off and toss the sliding top, cut off the closing nib and insert a length of plastic rod that is easy to remove and replace and does not clog up.)

 

post-570-0-69144300-1383855889.jpg

 

At the front right is a jar of raw umber artist grade pigment that will be used to darken the glue.  This bottle is several lifetimes’ supply.

 

 

In the next picture, about a teaspoon of dry pigment was added to about a tablespoon of water and is being thoroughly mixed with the pestle-like Teflon rod until there is no sign of powder or lumps.

 

post-570-0-25241900-1383855890_thumb.jpg

 

The entire 8 oz. of glue is then added a bit at a time and mixed in.  The next picture showsthe final appearance.

 

post-570-0-77096800-1383855890_thumb.jpg

 

In the next picture the empty bottle has been thoroughly washed out with hot water and is being refilled with the darkened glue.

 

post-570-0-15247500-1383855891_thumb.jpg

 

I expect this will be enough to finish the model.

 

The next picture shows the last of the full forward square frames.  The rail stanchios are about to be installed.

 

post-570-0-70795200-1383855891.jpg

 

The frame is now ready for beveling.  In the next picture the forward face of the pair is being trimmed back to the forward profile line on the disk sander.

 

 

post-570-0-24336300-1383855892.jpg

 

The aft outer profile was previously trimmed back.  The disk is kept away from that line in this step.  This leaves a hump or ridge between the two profiles.  The next picture shows this being removed by hand with a flat Rasp.

 

post-570-0-84448800-1383855892_thumb.jpg

 

The last picture shows the resulting bevel.

 

post-570-0-17783600-1383855893_thumb.jpg

 

The insides are only roughly beveled – mostly using a spindle sander.  They could be hand finished as well, but I intend to do that after the hull is assembled.

 

The final bevel will be refined when the hull is finished sanded.  Beveling these pairs before assembly saves tedious sanding work later, makes frame erection easier and yields a more accurate hull profile.

 

There is still some work to do on these frames before erection.

 

Ed

 

 

 

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Young America - extreme clipper 1853
Part 19 – Framing Continued

 

 

American Clipper Note:  On her fourth voyage, still under Cressy, Flying Cloud left New York for San Francisco in January 1854 and set a new record of 89 days, 8 hours, just under her 1851 performance.  This record would eventually fall to Andrew Jackson in 1859 with a passage of 89 days, 4 hours.  This new record would be in dispute for years.  These matters were taken quite seriously.  Given the vagaries of wind, weather and seasonal variations, one wonders what all this recordkeeping really means.  Between 1851 and her last Cape Horn voyage in 1856 Flying Cloud's record to San Francisco included passages of 89, 113, 106, 89, 112 and 185 days.

 

I am getting close to wrapping up the forward square frames.  The remainder of these frames – P through U are shown below after beveling as described earlier.  The narrowing of the lower hull forward can clearly be seen.

 

post-570-0-72210300-1383926321_thumb.jpg

 

The next picture shows the frames with cross-spales being fitted to U and P.

 

post-570-0-23165600-1383926322.jpg

 

The next step was to reduce the sidings of the upper futtocks and toptimbers.  This was described earlier.  The last step before erection is to install the framebolts.  These were 1” iron, unheaded, cut off flush.  They are simulated with 30 lb. test black monofilament.

 

post-570-0-74469600-1383926322_thumb.jpg

 

After dipping in CA the filament is slipped through the pin holes used for assembly.  There were 3 to 4 of these bolts per timber.  There are two through the rail stanchions as shown above.

 

After gluing in, the excess ends are easily sliced off with a razor blade as shown below.

 

post-570-0-14001000-1383926323_thumb.jpg

 

The next picture shows the remaining forward square frames installed.

 

post-570-0-76466000-1383926323_thumb.jpg

 

Starting with frame R going forward the sidings are reduced and the frame spacing increased.  For example the floors go from 14” to 12” and the frame spacing from 32” to 34”.  Webb used this method to reduce hogging by lightening the forward structure where the hull buoyancy was less due to the fine entry.  This design feature was able to reduce the weight of the forward structure by as much as 25 tons in Webb's ships.

 

On the model the spacers have suddenly gotten larger due to the increased separation.  The last two are being fitted above.

 

Next, another picture of the framing at this stage.

 

post-570-0-25915900-1383926324.jpg

 

The next picture shows the connection of the last frame, Q, at the keel.

 

post-570-0-76492300-1383926324_thumb.jpg

 

There are two points of interest here.  First, there is the filler on the keel forward of the last full frame.  Frames forward of this one will bolt to the sides of this filler and the keelson/deadwood – soon to be added.  Second, notches in the tops of the frames at the keel can be seen.  This is to provide additional bolting height for the next few frames which would otherwise have to be bolted only at the lower 17” of their feet – not enough – in my opinion.  Additional bolting space can only be added by raising the cutting down line aft of this first half frame.  If this were done suddenly at frame V there would be a step up in the inboard planking, so to provide a fair bed for the planks, I started raising the cutting down line four frames aft, adding additional bolting height of about 7" for the first half-frame.

 

The last picture - showing some strips representing the two tiers of the keelson - will help illustrate the above issue and also show the huge size of the keelson.

 

post-570-0-33733500-1383926325_thumb.jpg

 

These two 16”w x 24”h tiers ran in a straight line from stem to sternpost, bolted heavily through the frame floors to the keel.  I have placed a pencil mark on the lower keelson to show the raised cutting down height.  This additional height will allow one of the horizontal bolts for the first half frame to be driven through the lower keelson. 

 

The model mounting bolt and nut is about to be set into the actual lower keelson once the forward end of that that is fitted to the apron and marked for length.

 

 

 

 

Ed

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Ed,

 

I do like the idea of  the monofilament.  Any problem with the ends being too shiny?

 

Regarding the tinted glue, is there a reason you choose to  use the powdered pigment versus a liquid acrylic paint?   I have used the latter with no ill effects.  It does not take much paint to tint the glue if using a good professional artist color that is heavily pigmented so there are not worries of "weak" glue.  The first time I tried it I did test pieces and the wood broke away before the seam. 

 

Thanks

 

Allan

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Hi Allan,
 
No, the ends are not shiny when they are shaved off with the blade.  They usually also get sanded -  or filed - with no ill effect - unlike blackened metal.  They are mostly for appearance.  Its hard to get enough CA into the hole to gain much holding power.

 

There is no reason for pigment over acrylic paint, except that I did not want to risk corrupting the glue with the acrylic emulsion.  I felt safer with the pigment.  But from your comment that appears not to be a problem.  Paint is certainly more readily available and based on what you said I would not hesitate to use it.  I assume you dilute it to get good mixing with the glue?

 

Thanks.

 

Ed.

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Jumping back to the diagonal iron strapping...In my George Campbell book, *China Tea Clippers*..He diagrams well the use of diagonal iron straps in Clipper ships made after 1851.  This is the only good image I could find...but I might have another in some other books I have.  He says the straps were let into the face of the frame...suggesting metal strapping was done on the outside of frames not the inside.  Just some thoughts to ponder.

 

Rob

post-2739-0-74708000-1383938092_thumb.jpg

post-2739-0-76818600-1383938448_thumb.jpg

Edited by rwiederrich

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Ed,

 

She's really racing along!

 

I too am interested in the internal strapping of the hull.  The only references that I've found show external strapping, but none of those so far are contemporary, so it may be the old case of one author making a mistake and everyone else just following along.

 

John

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Hi Ed,

 

I don't know any more about the iron lattice bracing than is in  Crothers' book. I can obly work about as long as you.

 

Have read The Challenge by ABC Whipple? It's great, I've read it 3 times now!

 

Bruce

Edited by von stetina

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Well, the mystery of the strapping continues. Rob, I am familiar with the Campbell drawings and have read the book. I don't think it is conclusive either way. John, I do think the secondary sources have not made a case either way - probably because there is no real data. To me, the best argument - until I learn something new - is that in 1856 Webb built the very large Ocean Monarch and it was internally strapped. To avoid suggestions of sources already consulted (and to provide a sort of bibliography for anyone interested) I list the sources used so far on this and other construction:

Crothers, The American Clipper Ship
Howe and Matthews, American Clipper Ships
MacGregor, Fast Saling Ships
Chapelle, History of American Sailing Ships and Search for Speed Under Sail
Campbell, China Tea Clippers
Desmond, Wooden Ship Building
L. McKay, Practical Shipbuilder
New York Marine Register, 1857
American Lloyds Registry 1859
Maclean, Boston Daily Atlas - Challenge 1851
Clark, The Clipper Ship Era

Cutler, Greyhounds of the Sea

Underhill, Masting and Rigging

SeaGull Plans (Crothers) for Lightning, Challenge, Young America

 

Suggestions of other sources are of course welcome.

 

Thanks for the input on this.

 

Ed

 

Bruce, I have not read the book but ordered it used from Amazon for $4.

 

 

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Looks good to me...Internal lattice was typically wood if I'm not mistaken.  Good choice...since that is depicted in many line drawings of many ships.

 

Rob

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I believe even Campbell's book suggests wooden cross lattice was utilized as internal bracing on occasions.  From what I gathered from my own study..the thinner iron was cut into the framing on external applications and larger wooden bracing could be used internally  as was typical with some large first and second rate ships of previous centuries.

 

But.....Clipper design is so varied and not any two ships were designed exactly the same..because the evolution was rapid...so Internal strapping may have been limited in of itself...and since records available to deny or confirm are lost to history...any good educated guess would probably not find too much opposition among those who have even a clue......not to mention those who do not.

 

Great build log Ed...it, along with the build has become a class room in design as well.

 

Rob

Edited by rwiederrich

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Ed,

 

Found something of interest in Eric Lawson's 'The Egeria - an example of mid-nineteenth century New Brunswick ship construction'.  Lawson carried out an extensive and detailed examination of the hull of the 'Egeria' which now lies in the Falkland Islands and is still used as a storage facility.  'Egeria' was built at Kennebecasis in 1859.

 

Lawson states that 'Egeria' has iron strapping outside the frames; the plates each being 26 1/2 feet long, 1 1/8 inches thick and either 4 or 6 inches wide.

 

Perhaps more interestingly, he quotes from Lloyds Register of British and Foreign Shipping (1858 edition, Section 62, Para 3) that ships built in the British North American Colonies must have diagonal iron plates closely inserted either inside or outside the frame.

 

While Canadian shipbuilding and Lloyds rules might seem a little removed from McKay's yard, the evidence of the surviving ship and the quotation from the 1858 Lloyds rules is firm evidence of iron strapping and of strapping internally.

 

John

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With this being the Cutty Sark and a much later version then the YA or any East coast Clipper.....I can assume from the Lloyds requirements...their rules applied to her as far as having external cross lattice iron banding.  She had Iron frames...but you can see if the banding was on the outside..how the siding would need to be Cut to accommodate them.  Just for information's sake.

 

Rob

post-2739-0-43780100-1384031804_thumb.jpg

Edited by rwiederrich

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Different animal same stress, hogging.  The wooden bracing was a different set up particular to this era American wooden ship, and the wooden bracing might be there additionally. If you can find a copy of Crothers' book The American Built Clipper Ship there is a drawing and description. As well as a list of ships that had it. The best description is a lattice, like you might see in a lumber supplier used as a trellace or screen.

Every crossing was bolted through all the timbers if I remember right. Doing it on the outside makes my neck ache just thinking about it!

 

It's great to talk with everyone about these clippers!

 

Bruce

Edited by von stetina

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