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Tadeusz43

Art of period shipbuilding

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Hi,

Construction of a replica of the 17th century ship De 7 Provincien  has a long history.

Works started in 1995 in Batavia Werf in Lelystad but due to severe technical problems that work was completely wrecked.

In 2008 again started the construction of the ship but in 2014 work stopped because to lack of funding.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_ship_De_Zeven_Provinci%C3%ABn_%281665%29

 

Tadeusz

 

Construction site in Spring 2003

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Construction site in August 2015

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Hi,

Masts.

Masts on boats and small ships was made from single timber (pine or spruce).

On larger vessels masts was assembled from few timbers for

obtain required diameter as also reinforced by external woods

named fish.

The fish was installed on front or/and on sides of masts .

All this structure was hold together with rope wooldings or later with iron hoops.

 

Tadeusz

 

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Mast making in Batvia Werf

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Batavia mast with woolding  Batavia

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Mast crosstrees  Batavia

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Mast cap continental style andmast top  Batavia

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Topmast heel  Batavia

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Mast wooldings

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Iron hoops and front fish Jylland

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Rope wooldings  and front fish Gotheborg

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Mast with fishes anr iron hoops Victory

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Hi,

Fixing mast on the ship.

Mast are fixed  in the desk with wooden wedges.

For make this joint watertight is used tarred canvas cover named mast coat.

 

Tadeusz

 

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Mast partners at deck Batavia

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Bowsprit support Batavia

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Bowsprit double gammoning Batavia                                             Bowsprit coat Batavia

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Fore mast and bowsprit arrangement Victory

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Mast  partners at deck Gotheborg

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Bowsprit double gammoning Gotheborg

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 Bowsprit single gammoning Sthandard                          Bowsprit double gammoning La Grace

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Tops

The construction of platforms fitted on mast tops were changed during the centuries from „baskets” or round platforms with high guard rails up

to the end of 17th century. 

In 19th century tops was made as flat platforms supported on crosstrees.

Tops was used as access to topmast sails as also battle station for archers,

gun shooters or even small cannons.

 

Tadeusz

 

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Lisa von Lubeck (15th century)

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Neff Victoria (beginning of16th century)

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Golden Hind (end of 16th century)

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Halve Maen  (beginning of 17th century)

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Vasa (beginning of 17th century)

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Spirit mast top Batavia

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Batavia  (17th century)

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Shtandard (beginning of 18th century)

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Amsterdam (18th century)

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La Grace (18th century)

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Gotheborg (18th century)

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Victory ( 18th century)

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Bounty ( end of 18th century)

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Warrior (19th  century)

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Jylland (end of 19th century)

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Passat (beginning of 20th century)

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Yards Part 1

 

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Bounty wtih furled sails

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 Main topgallant yard Bounty

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Driver boom jaws Bounty

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Main topsail and main yards Bounty

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Mizen yard, crossjack, boom and gaff Bounty

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Yards in Batavia Werf workshop

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Yards in Historic Dockyards  workshop in Portsmouth(UK)

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Spirit sails yards Batavia

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Yard with hemp rope  jackstay Batavia

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Spirit sails yards Gotheborg

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Bonaventure mizzen yard, parral and halyars  Gotheborg

 

 

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Yars Part 2

 

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Main course yard parral  Batavia

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Main course yard parral Amsterdam

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Yard with halyard and sling Victory

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Topsail yard with halyard and parral Victory

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Crossjack and gaff jaws on mizzen mast Victory

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Main mast yards Jylland

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Yard with iron rod jackstay  and studding sails boom Jylland

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Iron mast & yards Passat

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Iron yards and truss Passat

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Spanker boom Passat

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Spanker gaff and topsail gaff Passat

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Iron yards Kruzenstern

 

 

 

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Hand made blocks in workshop of Batavia Werf.

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Workshop

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Stages of block making

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                          Stropping a blocks.                              Tools used for serving a rope ( on right)

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Primary tooling

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Final tooling

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The blocks after impregnation with linseed oil
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Deadeyes

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Tadeusz

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Rigging

Standing rigging Part 1

Channels and chain plates

Channels was installed on ships from the end of 15th century up to half of the 19th century.

It was the place of securing the lower ends of the shrouds and sometimes the backstays.

The lower deadeyes were attached to the hull by iron chains or rods called chain plate.

 

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Neff Victoria

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Vasa                                                               Halve Maen

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Amsterdam

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Batavia

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Bounty

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Gotheborg

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Etile du Roy ( ex Grand Turk)

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Shtandadrt

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Victory

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Jylland

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Warrior 1860

 

Tadeusz

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Shrouds

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Lisa von Lubeck. Sheer poles on lower part of main mast shrouds

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Nef Victoria. Fore mast shrouds anchored to the deck.

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Amsterdam. Shroud seizing and lanyards.

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Amsterdam. Lower shrouds on main mast head and catharpins with futtock stave.

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Amsterdam. Main mast head and futtock shrouds and topmast shrous.

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Gotheborg. Main mast head and topmast shrous.

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Batavia. Spirit topmast shrouds

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Sheer pole and rat lines.

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Victory. Shroud seizing and lanyards.

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Victory. Lower shrouds at topmast and catharpins.

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            Bounty. Main mast with lower, topmast and topgalant shrouds.

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Passat. Wire rope shrouds of fore mast anchored to the bulwark with rigging screws.

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Passat. Wire rope shrouds of main mast  anchored to the deck with rigging screws.

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Stays

Hemp ropes.

In period of use hemp ropes main stay was the thickest rope in ship standing rigging. Formula gave by Wolfram zu Mondfeld in “ Historic Ship Models” says:

For modelers purpose diameter of main stay is determined as 0,166 of

the diameter of the main mast at the deck.

Diameters of other ropes in standing and running rigging are proportionately smaller.

 

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Batavia. Main stay lanyard and collar.

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Batavia. Main stay collar.

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Batavia. Fore stay lanyard.

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Gotheborg. Main stay and preventer stay lanyards

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Gotheborg. Mizen stay and preventer stay lanyards.

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Gotheborg. Fore stay and preventer stay lanyards

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Gotheborg. Fore stay and preventer stay lanyards.   Gotheborg.Bobstays and bowsprit shrouds

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Gotheborg. Main stay, preventer stay and crowsfeet at mast top
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Victory. Main stay and preventer stay lanyards. Stays snaked.

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Victory. Stay and prevetner stay at topmast.

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Victory. Fore stay and prevetner stay lanyards. Stays snaked.

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Victory. Bobstays and bowsprit shrouds.

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Is there a rule/formula to give the number of shrouds required for any given mast? I'm looking at illustrations of HM Lady Nelson and a contemporaneous model on NMM clearly shows five including a possible backstay whilst an engraving at about the same period seems to indicate seven with possible backstays included.

 

Rick 

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Hi Rick,

The shrouds was installed as pair of ropes.

Number of pairs of the shrouds depend of period and vessel size as also of vessel origin.

The number of pairs of the shrouds increased over the years from one to three pairs in the 14th century to 12 and more in the 15th and 16th centuries. On some ships were installed even 18-20 pair of the shrouds.

At the beginning of the 17th century number of pairs want began to be reduced and for the largest ships amounted to 9-11 on main mast, 8-18 on foremast and 2-4 on mizzen.

See: "Historic Ship Models" by Wolfram zu Mondfeld

 

Tadeusz

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Stays

Wire ropes.

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HMS Warrir 1860. Wire ropes rigging. Early period of wire rope rigging.

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Kruzenstern.One of last existing windjammers

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HMS Warrior. Main stay lanyard. Two stays was fitted port and sterboard.

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HMS Warrior. Fore stay and fore stay preventer lanyards.

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HMS Warrior. Mizzen stay and preventer stay.

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Passat. Mizzen stay and mizzen topmast stay.Stays was made as double .

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Passat .Main mast stay and main mast topmast stay.

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Kruzenstern. Mizzen stay and mizzen topmast stay

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Kruzenstern. Main mast stay and main topmast stay.  Passat. Fore mast stays anchored at bowsprit.

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HMS Warrior. Martingle stay and bowsprit rigging.

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Dar Pomorza (1909). Bowsprit rigging. Chains in use.

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Kruzenstern. Bowsprit rigged with iron bars.

 

 

 

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Running rigging

Hemp rope rigging

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Gotheborg.Fully rigged and seaworthy

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Gotheborg. Partly furled sails and most important lines.

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Shtandard. Fore top sail.

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Top and royal yards rigging

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Gotheborg.Mizzen lateen sail rigging.

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Sthandard. Mizzen lateen sail rigging.

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La Glorie. Mizzen gaf sail rigging

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Bonty. Mizzen gaf sail boom with sheets.

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Sthandard. Mizzen lateen sail yard with rigging

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Batavia. Parral.

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Batavia. Main sail yard hlyard with ramshead block

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Gotheborg. Crowsfeet wit euphore.

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La Grace.

 

 

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Running rigging

Wire ropes in running rigging.

 Wire ropesi in running rigging was used on beginning of 20th century.

In such period was constructed the last cargo sailing ships famous Windjammers.

Wire ropes was used as halyards, yard lifts and brass.

For their winding serve special winches with hand power or even steam power.

Wire ropes was also used for “standing" parts of running rigging e.g. pendants.

Useful information for modelers:

http://pages.swcp.com/usvmyg/squarerig/sq2.htm

 

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Kruzenstern                                                                            Passat

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Kruzenstern

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Passat

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Rope belaying

Small size ropes are belayed with belaying pins, which are plugged into pin rails.

Pin rails can be situated on bulwarks on the ship side or made as the fife rails

around mast.

Belaying pins are made of wood or metal.

On the ship is used one only diameter of pins with diameter is of thickest rope used in rigging.  

Excess of belayed rope is coiled and hanged on the pin.

Ropes with bigger diameter are belayed on cleats, kevels, bollards or riding bitts

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Wissemara.

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Gotheborg. The ship is fully rigged and seaworthy.

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Jylland. The ship is not seaworthy and running rigging is significantly reduced

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Jylland. Basket for rope excess.

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Kruzenstern. The ship is fully rigged and seaworthy.

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Passat. The ship is not seaworthy and running rigging is significantly reduced

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Victory. The ship is not seaworthy and running rigging is significantly reduced

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Warrior. The ship is not seaworthy and running rigging is significantly reduced.

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Bounty

Kevels ( staghorns )

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Amsterdam

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Vasa

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Batavia

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Warrior

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Victory

 

Cleats

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Gotheborg.

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Gotheborg. Shroud cleats.

Ridding bitts

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Batavia Ridding bitts on lower deck for mooring lines and anchor cable.

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Victory. Ridding bitts for anchor cable.

 

Tadeusz

 

 

 

 

 

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Cannon tackles

 

Guns placed on  guns carriages  were equipped with tacks enabling them to

 go back for loading  - train tackles, and return to the position for a shot –gun tackles.

The breeching it was thin rope seized to the cascabel or to the gun carriage.

Purpose of the breeching was to absorb  the recoil of the gun when it was fired.

Pivot guns was equipped with tackles for change it position.

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Vasa Museum Stockholm

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Marine Musem in Kalskrona (Sweden)

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Jylland

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Marine Museum in Gdańsk (Poland)

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Gotheborg

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Victory

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Batavia

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Warrior

 

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Pumps

Pumps are very important ship equipment and was used for emergency  ship dewatering as also for deck washing and fresh water pumping in to the galley.

Emergency pumps was located on the deck above waterline with suction from ship bottom near keelson and discharge to the pumpdale scuppers or directly to the deck.

 

Elm tree pump is oldest type of ship pumps.

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Vasa - reconstruction

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Batavia

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Asterdam

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Victory

Chain pump has bigger capacity and  was introduced in British Navy in beginning of 18th century. Not was used in the Continental fleets.

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Chain pump accompanied by elm tree pump

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Chain pump handles and chain wheel on pump head

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Chain pumps discharge to the gundeck

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Pump suction tubes in the well near the main mast feet.

Victory

Crosshead pump introduced in 19th century.

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Jylland

Flywheel pump introduced in 19th century.

Rotary action of flywheel was changed into oscillating movement with crankshaft

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Jylland

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Marine Museum in Stockholm

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Cutty Sark

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Tadeusz

 

I want to thank you for posting this collection of detail photos.  Very helpful for a newcomer like me to see good, clear pictures of how these things were done on the various ships.

 

Richard

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Dear colleagues,
Thank you for your kind words about my work, but my stock images on ships and their construction is limited and not very long runs out.

I had a dream…
Because I see that collect photographic information on this subject can be interesting and useful to propose joint creation

 ShippediA The Free Encyclopedia period ships and their construction

Many of us live near  where the maritime museums and museum ships, and can take pictures of interesting passages in their construction and equipment, maybe they want to share them with our community.

What do you think about this proposal.

 

Tadeusz

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The capstan & windlass

 

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Wissemara

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Kamper Kogge

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Roland von Bremen

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Vasa

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Amsterdam

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Batavia

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Gotheborg

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Bounty ( base of capstan looks like it was out of period)

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Victory

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Warrior

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Jylland

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Kruzenstern

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Passat The windlas was powered from capstan situated above on forecastle deck.

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Passat  The capstan and bulwark winch

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